Executive Morning Routine Portal

Laws of Thermodynamics

Zeroth law of thermodynamics:
 
If two systems are in thermal equilibrium independently with a third system, they must be in thermal equilibrium with each other. This law helps define the notion of temperature.  
If A and B are seperately in thermal equilibrium with a third system, C... then A and B are in thermal equilibrium with each other.

 

          

First law of thermodynamics:
When energy passes, as work, as heat, or with matter, into or out from a system, its internal energy changes in accord with the law of conservation of energy. Equivalently, perpetual motion machines of the first kind are impossible.
Energy cannot be created or destroyed it can only be transfered.


 


Second law of thermodynamics:
In a natural thermodynamic process, the sum of the entropies of the interacting thermodynamic systemsincreases. Equivalently, perpetual motion machines of the second kind are impossible.

Entropy will always increase (disorder).


Third law of thermodynamics:
The entropy of a system approaches a constant value as the temperature approaches absolute zero... with the exception of non-crystalline solids (glasses) the entropy of a system at absolute zero is typically close to zero, and is equal to the logarithm of the multiplicity of the quantum ground states.

There is no absolute zero; there will always be some entropy creating some heat.




Newton's Laws of Motion
 

First Law:
When viewed in an inertial reference frame, an object either remains at rest or continues to move at a constant velocity, unless acted upon by an external force.

An object at rest stays at rest unless acted upon.
 


Second law:
The vector sum of the external forces F on an object is equal to the mass m of that object multiplied by the acceleration vector a of the object: F = ma.

Force  is equal to mass times acceleration (this explains that everything falls at the same rate).


Third law:
When one body exerts a force on a second body, the second body simultaneously exerts a force equal in magnitude and opposite in direction on the first body.
Every action  has a positive and equal reaction (if you punch a wall, it will punch you back and hurt!)